Dataset anonymization is a transformation that can be a very beneficial part of the pre-processing stage when dealing with vast amounts of data in a project. It aims to transform an initial sensitive dataset by adding dummy content randomly but preserving data coherence in order to generate an equivalent one with non-real-world information.
This process can be applied to a dataset before any employees develop or tests solutions around it, adding an extra layer of security to the development process. Once the product seems ready, the real dataset is connected instead for production purposes.
Using this transformation in the develop and testing environments is considered a best practice.
Azure Synapse Analytics
There are a lot of tools available for big data analytics, but we will focus on Azure Synapse Analytics, from Microsoft. They self-define as a limitless analytics service that brings together data integration, enterprise data warehousing, and big data analytics. In the application main page, there are three main sections: Data, Develop and Integrate.
The first one is where all the storage containers are located, from unstructured ones as Data Lakes to structured ones as SQL databases.
The Develop section is intended to create, store, and execute many kinds of data manipulation or analysis scripts in the cloud, using the advantages of Apache Spark. For example, Notebooks are an immensely powerful tool since they allow general purpose languages such as Python, Scala, or C# to be used along with standard data science libraries such as Pandas.
Finally, the Integrate section is intended to automate complex processes related to the extraction, transformation, and storage of data. Pipelines are another powerful tool since they define sets of processing data elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next. Also, they can be set up in order to automatically execute periodically or as response to triggered predefined events.
Dataset anonymization tool
Let us review an implementation done in a Synapse Analytics Notebook using Python and Pandas. It reads an excel file from the Data Lake Storage Gen2 and creates another one with the result. The input file is required to have the following structure:
- First excel sheet: Contains all the column headers in the first row, and the values that do not require any modification.
- Second excel sheet: Contains headers and desired values from the columns that need to be anonymized but are independent from the others.
- The rest excel sheets: Each one contains a set of headers and desired values from columns whose values are dependent from each other. This is useful to maintain coherence in the resulting dataset.
To give a more detailed explanation of the execution, an example dataset of 1000 rows related to business sales was generated using the Mockaroo web application. The following image is a preview of the sensitive data file that needs to be anonymized.
Imagine the Global Sales Organization wants to create a series of dashboards related to this information. If they want to add an extra layer of security, these datasets should be anonymized before starting to develop any dashboard. The first step would be for a person with access to the real data, to modify the file to follow the required format.
Input file formatting
Since there is no need to apply any transformation to the Start Date and End Date fields, their values can remain on the first sheet.
In the second sheet, independent fields to be anonymized are included, in this case these are Company and Business Unit. These column cells contain all the possible values for the final anonymized dataset, therefore here is where sensitive data can be suppressed or substituted. Since each column is independent, they do not need to share size.
Note that these two fields could be dependent on each other, but for this example they are kept independent, otherwise they should be on the third or a higher index sheet.
The fields Market, Country Code and Currency fields are dependent on each other and therefore they are put in the third sheet. Notice that in dependent column sheets (dimensionals) all the columns must share size.
Same thing goes with Spends, Income and Profit fields since they are dependent on each other. Values are filled with non-real examples but considering that Income – Spends = Profit to maintain coherence.
Once the input file is correctly formatted and uploaded into the Data Lake Gen2, it is time to execute the Anonymization Dataset Tool Notebook.
Notebook manual execution
Once the Notebook is open, attach to a valid execution pool and after filling the first cell input and output file path parameters, press on run all.
In the second cell there are two dependencies being imported. Pandas, a standard data analysis library built on top of NumPy, and the Random module.
After this point, every cell follows a try-except structure to facilitate more comprehensible error messages. The next cell reads the input file and outputs the sheet names found.
Then, some Pandas data frames are created to store content related to each excel sheet. Also, the first sheet data is printed.
The next cell contains two methods to help detect formatting errors in the input file. The first is used to check that every column header has a matching header on the first sheet. The second function is used to verify dimensional sheets (index >= 3) format.
Now all the data frames previously created will be processed in order to clean, organize, and check their values. At first, the values sheet data (index = 2) is processed storing the name, size, and unique values for each column. The output in the image shows part of the information related to the Company field.
A similar process is applied to each dimensional sheet but allowing duplicate values. Some information related to the DimFinancial sheet can be seen.
The next and most important step is to incorporate the previously stored values into the fact data frame by iterating its rows and assigning a random value or group of values to each field. Also, a preview of this result is printed.
To finalize, the resulting data frame is written into an excel file and stored in the output file path set in the very first cell.
The output file has a single sheet, and it contains the freshly anonymized data.
Now this file can act as consistent dummy data to develop solutions around it without exposing real-world sensitive data.
Execution through a Pipeline
To automate the execution of this notebook, it can be executed using a Synapse Analytics Pipeline. Select a Synapse Notebook Activity and set up the correct input and output file paths parameters.
The example can be run by pressing the Debug button. If something goes wrong, the execution will end with a Failed status. The error message can be seen by hovering over the name and clicking on the message icon.
Otherwise, if everything goes as expected the Notebook will finish its execution with a Success status.
In case there was the need to store the anonymized dataset in a SQL database, a previously created Pipeline pl_upload_CSV_to_DW can be helpful. It takes the input folder path, input csv file name, table schema and table name parameters. This can be added as another step of the previous Pipeline.
Notice that the parameters section shows some sort of code expression. This is because the main Pipeline is parameterized, and those portions of code are references to the main parameters. These can be displayed by clicking on the blank area, in the parameter section.
Of course, also the Notebook item parameters should change since we want to use the main ones.
This time, the value field contains a little more complex expression. This is because the main parameters include the folder paths and the file names as separate values, while the Notebook parameters take the full file paths as single parameters. Then, the expression is creating the full file path by concatenating folder path and file name in the right format.